Choose the Polish case.
Great thanks a lot for this page on Polish grammar.
I’m confused about #42, shouldn’t that be genitive+instrumental?
“a lot of presents”->genitive
“under the tree”->instrumental
Or am I thinking the wrong way here :)
Your correct, I changed this, thanks. Polish grammar is sometimes hard even for me and I created this site. Although I think that was a coding error on my part as clearly “a lot of” is one of the triggers for the genitive case. It is a quantity like ‘dużo’, and the instrumental case I usually associate with the preposition ‘z’ , like ‘z Markiem’, however it can be used with other prepositions like ‘Pod’. Choinka is feminine in gender so it changes to choinką (pronounced ‘hoy-ink-on’).
Query Those cases again!
‘You’re’ not your your for you are, ha!
But I am having trouble with Polish. Wlosy mojego brata sa krotkie looks genitive to me with those endings and the possessive meanin so why do you say it is nominative?
I’m trying hard to ‘get’ the gist of these cases but it’s so hard! I’ve done the exercises above twice and still get some of the answers wrong. Just when I think I’ve cracked it another example proves me wrong. However, this site is very good, thank you for compiling it, and please expand it as it’s very helpful. I love your approach where you suggest we just accept it as it is rather than try and learn a method – because it doesn’t work!
Polish cases are very hard for some people, if you do not let your mind bend. This was the hardest thing for me. I tried to understand the theory but, but the reality is, its comes after you memorizes the ideas.
You have to do it like ten times or more, unless you get 100%. Americans want everything fast and easy. But this is the Polish language. It is very different than English. But if you learn it your thinking, and consciousness will stretch and change.
Your need to understand that certain words trigger a case. Like the preposition ‘z’ will trigger the instrumental case. That is ‘what instrument are you using to accomplish something?’ But believe me the theory of cases does not explain anything, or very little. It is more memorization. You can learn Polish cases and Polish grammar. You have to memorizes the ideas.
However, I do have some theory and explanations on the site.
Further, if anyone wants to build the explanations and pages further I would be happy to work with you. Thank you very much for your kind words. I guess the main thing is to not worry if you are not perfect at first with Polish grammar. It takes a lot patience. But your brain will grow unlike learning any other language.
Do you know of any good language course I could take in Poland this summer?
The best is at University of Jagiellonian, however, if not that just living in Poland and taking classes at a school or a private tutor will work.
This is a really useful little gem of a site :) im teaching myself this interesting language, its my hobby really. I have all sorts of different sources, including trips to poland to see how the language really works. Oh yes, and to eat the golabki ;) the little drills on this site are fun and help keep your knowledge up in this important area. A wiec, dzieki, i….dobranoc!
Thank you. I would like to build Polish grammar beyond just Polish grammar, but for now, thanks for the comment.
Hi I have just discovered this site and it seems great. I am a US citizen with a Polish wife and son (he has dual citizenship). I have been trying to learn Polish for 4 years now (but without living in Poland) and find it to be quite difficult, especially grammar (cases). I find your site to be very helpful and appreciate how you encourage new students to be patient.
Hi Paul, I learned Polish and so can you. I am not good with languages but the key is, it is a marathon and not a sprint. Find what works for you. I like drills. I teach and learn languages. I learn by a combination of drills and speaking with a native speaker. I also use flashcards even for grammar. Poland is a great country anytime you can visit come on over.
Polish grammar noun case identification exercises 1
There is an error here. The sentence should read “Brat jest stary.”
Brat jest miły.
My brother is old.
I find these exercises very useful!
Please forward the flash cards
This is an excellent web site! I found your explanation for the “instrumental” case to be very helpful. Nonetheless, why are 22, 43, and 70 considered to be instrumental?
Keep up your great work!
I study Polish and I understand the theory as it is taught, however, putting a sentence together requires too many variables and too much abstract thought to be able to execute it correctly.
This is a great website, as it allows me to practise without thinking about formulae.
You are right, to make a simple Polish sentence requires considering an exponentially large number of variable. However, if you drill the actual sentences rather than work only from the theory, I have found in my personal experience it is easier.
Hi, I’m a native Filipino who is fluent in English. Do you know any other free sites where you can do a lot of drills. I’ve almost completely mastered the declination (singular, plural, adjectives, nouns, etc.), imperfective and perfective forms, forming conditional sentences (with gdyby,etc.). It takes me about 5-10 seconds to form a long sentence, including those utilising conditional clauses, and different declinations. However, I wanna get to the point where i can do all the declinations, imperfective/perfective, etc. with fluency. My major weakness that takes much of my sentence building time is making substitutions and debates whether to use imperfective/perfective, or the word order. I’ve been learning for a month, and I found that I was….well….skilled?…when it comes to languages, so it made me encourage to try learn this language. Also my vocabulary is kinda erratically limited (I know wszystkowiedzacy, przesadzic/presadzac/pochlebiac, etc. but dunno the polish for kick, change, punch, dishes). How can I overcome this to be fluent ‘jak najszybciej’? Do I have to start thinking in polish, or do I just continue to translate from English to Polish mentally till thinking in Polish comes by itself? I have 2 dictionaries with me, but I dunno where to start…….thanks. And how long do you reckon is it gonna take me to be fluent enough to engage a conversation with a Pole (without him having to strain?)
I think my site has the most drills, most other sites are just tables and explanations.
When I speak Polish it is easy not. I do not even think that I am speaking Polish I just speak. This comes with time. However, if I speak all day in Polish it is good to go back to English in the evening. But after a while it will feel just like English.
Thank goodness I have found this site. I have been living in Poland since last august and been going to Polish language school since september, but the grammar is holding back my progress and destroying my confidence. I am convinced that the Poles do not teach their infant schoolchildren by bombarding them with rules of grammar, but rather by the method that you have devised here.
Thanks for your input on Polish grammar. I am an English speaker who learned Polish, not just a native Polish speaker with a degree in literature.
I have just stumbled upon this website. It is my preferred website for learning Polish from the websites I have visited. I expect to be spending a great deal of time on here in the next few days and weeks. I’m Australian, staying in Koszalin and my girlfriend is Polish. Keep up the great work with this site and all the best to everyone learning about this great language and culture.
Chris, Thank you for the nice words about Polish grammar.
16. Lecę do Francji.
I am flying to France.
Why is this genitive?
‘do’ or ‘to’ triggers the genitive case. It is the most complex case in the senses it has the most functions. It is not just used as a possessive case like in English but has five functions in Polish.
What does a grammatical cases mean
I’m english and I’m trying to learn Polish ,I am having lessons at the moment but im really struggling ,I’m not very well-educated but I can read and write english.
I know this might sound funny ,please don’t laugh but in don’t even know what the cases mean please can you tell me?
Education has nothing to do with it. It is hard to undersand for an English speaker.
Consider and meditate on these two sentences.
‘She’ is the one I see.
I see ‘her’
‘She’ becomes ‘her’ because the case change. You so not say ‘I see she’
This is an example of an English case. Polish has this type of change for every noun not just personal pronouns. It makes the language clearer for a Polish speaker.
They are like English articles (‘the’ ‘an’, ‘a’) or prepositions, simply grammar that makes the sentence more clear.
Try to read a little more on them on my site that explains the theory using George Washington as an example.
Good reviews for this site about the Polish language
Thank you for creating this site it’s really helping me.im english and my wife is polish I have been learning Polish for a couple of years. I am not really well-educated im struggling with the grammar im aware I must make a really lot of mistakes when I talk. but I will keep going if they can understand even if you make the grammar mistakes makes my wonder why they have the seven cases of nouns. Well done mark you have conquered a really difficult language you have inspired me too keep going. pozdrawiam Sean
Thank you, Polish is an interesting language, once you can break through to a certain level, your whole world changes.
I thought it would be easier for me because I speak German and Spanish and I do understand how it works in these languages. But it kills me and at the same time it is great fun. Thank you very much for providing your help.
I absolutely love this website. Thank you so much for spending the time to form this website.
I also have a question about the differences between question #34 and #35.
34. Mówię do niej.
I am talking to her.
35. Starałem się mu to wyjaśnić.
I tried to explain it to him.
Both end with “to (someone)”, so why would #34 be the genitive case while 35 is the dative case?
You should underline which word you’re asking about.
In some sentences you’re asking about the case of pronouns (Q59 & Q84), which is unexpected and confusing.
In ‘dom brata’ (Q19) you’re looking for Genitive but in ‘córka brata’ (Q88) you want Nominative! Again, very confusing!
Not to mention the fact that there are sometimes three nouns in the sentence so it’s really a guessing game.
There are also mistakes:
– after ‘na’ we can have other cases than Locative (Q3), for example Accusative: ‘patrzę na dom’
– the same with ‘w’ (Q18): ‘jak kamień w wodę’ (Accusative)
– in Q42 you have Vocative of ‘Poland’ instead of ‘correct’ in feedback. It’s strange and confusing.
Thank you for this site on Poland
Thank you for making this wonderful site, it is really helping my Polish.
I started learning about a two years ago and ‘some’ grammar is starting to stick in my mind, finally.
As said, this is a marathon and not a sprint.
Hi there, thank you for writing this post it’s really helped me understand the cases! However I don’t understand why number 62 is instrumental?
Chowają się przed duchami.
They are hiding from the ghost.
Because they are not hiding under something from the ghost, or someone is hiding with his friend. Any help would be greatly appreciated.
This excercise would benefit from some sort of visual clue as to what part of the sentence is under consideration. Perhaps boldfacing or colour coding the noun, adjective or phrase of which the case is being asked. Otherwise some of the examples are ambiguous and one might unnecessarily start asking oneself if one has really understood.
I would also like to thank you for this site. It’s exactly what is missing and clearly a labour of love.
I eventually need to rewrite a lot of this, however, I am working on a professional Polish language program as a priority.
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