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Polish grammar

Polish grammar verbs present tense lesson 7

Polish Verbs

Like in English verbs have three tenses, past, present and future.

Aspects.

Like in English Polish has verb aspects, however, not quite as many. Basically most Polish verbs have two forms, the imperfect and the perfect. The imperfect aspect is uesed for an actions which is unfinished or continuious, whilst, the perfect for is used to describe and action that is complete.

Most Polish verbs in their infinitive end in c’ or c.

Polish verbs presnet tense

The basic Polish verb conjugation is as follows:

czytać – To read

czytam – I read, I am reading

czytaz – You read

czyta – He/she read

czytamy – We read

czytacie – You (pl)l read. You (guys/gals) read.

czytają – They read

Review the table for more, but most important drill.

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Polish grammar

Polish grammar verbs past tense lesson 8

Polish verbs past tense

Polish verbs past have two aspects for actions completed (perfect) and for actions incomplete (imperfect).

He is the verb to be:

być

byłem

byłes

był

byliśmy

byliście

byli

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Polish grammar

Polish grammar verbs future tense lesson 9

Polish verbs future tense

The Future tense have perfect and imperfect aspects for actions that are non continuous (perfect) and for actions that are continuous in the future (imperfect).

For example: I will be waiting for you at the airport.

This is an imperfect future as it is continuous.

However, “I will graduate on May 15th ” Is an example of the perfect future.

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Polish grammar

Polish grammar questions lesson 10

How to make a question in Polish

Questions: In Polish questions are formed in two ways, by inflecting your voice or by adding the question word czy at the beginning of the sentence.

However, question words as who, why, where etc change with case so to understand these you need to refer to the table.

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Polish grammar

Polish grammar noun case endings tables 2

Polish Grammar

Lesson 2. Noun case endings:

Remember Cases are the hardest and almost only part of Polish grammar. One you learn these first few lessons Polish grammar is easy.

This is Polish grammar in a nutshell. This table contains the singular noun case endings. If you know this table and can use it, and nothing else, people will be impressed.

Questions Nouns
               
               
  Masculine Noun Thing Masculine Noun animal Masculine Noun Person Feminine Nouns Feminine Soft Feminine ni Neuter
Nominative a a i o
 
 
Genitive u a a y/i i i a
 
 
Dative owi u owi ie y i u
 
 
Accusitive a a e ie o
 
 
 
Instumental em em iem a a ia em
 
 
Locative u e e ie y i e
 
 

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Polish grammar

Polish grammar noun case identification tables 1

Polish Grammar

This is a table I created for Polish grammar noun cases.

Polish cases

Gerneral Summary of when a Polish noun case is used.

Nomitive It is used when you refer to a direct object . This is….
Kto/Co
Who/what .
Genitive Possession, Mark’s car. Or lack of possession (I do not have a car); going towards .
Kogo/Czego
Of whose/Of what
Dative Doing something ‘to’ I am giving a book to…
Kumu/Czemu
to who/ to what
Accusitive The direct object of most verbs; the object of some prepositions. This case refers to the indirect object, like, have, see.
Kogo/Co
Whom/What
Instumental Used with prepositions: z -with, przed -infront of, nad -above, pod -under, za -behind or traveling by. Saying someone is (title or category)
Kim/Czym
With whom/With what
Locative Used with prepostions: na -on, at, w -in, przy -by,at po -after, o -about
O Kim/O Czym
About who/about what
Vocative Rare-to call someone.

Another view of Polish grammar case summary with more specifics

Nomitive To jest This is
Genitive dom Marka house of Mark
szukać look for
nie not
słuchać look for
duzo many
kilka few
od from since
do to, towards, into
dla for
kolo near
z out out, from
blisko near
obok beside
daleko far
niedaleko near
w podblizu near
naprzeciw opposite
wsród amoung
wzdluz along
dokola around
naokolo around
Dative pomagać (give) help to
wyjasnij (give) trust to
dawac give to
pozwalać allow to
pozyczać lend to
zaufanie explain to
Accusitive miej have
lubić like
zobacz see
Instumental z with
przed in front of;behind
nad above
pod under,bellow
za behind
by (transportation)
labeling someone…he is american, she is a dentist.
Locative na on, at
w in
przy by,at
po after
o about,of